Sport Performance and Mental Skills Resources

 Helping Cultivate Healthy Social Media Use with Youth in Your Life
(9/20/2022)
 
   

Helping Cultivate Healthy Social Media Use with Youth in Your Life


How Coaches and Parents Can Support Them in Developing Healthy Social Media Behaviors.


Many of you remember the public service announcement from the 80’s, “It’s 10 PM, do you know where your children are?” If your kids are like most, they’re on their phone/computer checking Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, tiktok, or Snapchat. The age group between 13-17 often consumes 6-8 hours a day of social media and online content. While social media can certainly cause it’s share of problems, it’s here to stay. Young people are going to use it whether adults like it or not. Parents and coaches have a tough job—the goal isn’t to keep athletes off social media altogether, but to support them in developing healthy social media behaviors.

Let’s examine both sides of the social media phenomenon:

Helpful Impacts on Mental Health:

• It can provide a wealth of information for athletes looking to improve themselves physically and mentally, usually free of charge
• Group support
• Some kids have more comfort reaching out in an online format
• Sharing their athletic achievements with a wide and diverse population
• A platform for them to develop their “Brand” and market themselves
• An escape from the daily routine and outside of their “normal”

Harmful Impacts on Mental Health:

• Individuals or groups can post or share information easily without regard for a specific individual or group. This allows the consumers to infer tone and intent and this is where bullying is born.
• Even in instances where negative information is shared and then removed, that moment can resurface at any time which may cause the individual or group to process the emotions and feelings time and time again.
• The negative emotions that can be created because of social media are far-reaching and can take over a large portion of your child’s time and energy.
• Too many late-night hours can negatively impact sleep and we know how important the proper amount of sleep is to overall positive mental health.

How can parents engage their children to harness the positives of social media

Ask questions. Let’s face it—most youths know way more about social media than the adults in their lives. And they know more about what exactly they’re doing online. Instead of starting conversations by talking about the harms or effects of social media, be open and curious about their unique experiences with it.

Celebrate the positives. When kids feel judged or misunderstood about their social media use, they’re likely to get defensive and shut down. Make sure to point out how great it is that they were able to connect with their friends and family who live far away, or comment on how helpful it must be to reach most of their teammates to discuss who’s signed up to play for Team USA in the World Baseball Classic!

Promote limiting screen time. Everything in moderation, right? Excessive time on the internet and social media has been linked to poorer mental health outcomes like depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Younger children will need more help with this—consider setting time limits or media-free zones. As children get older, support them in managing their own usage—encourage them to dedicate time to offline activities or help them update their phone settings to limit time on certain apps.

Model healthy use. This one is more important than you think. Young people notice what adults are doing more than we may think, including being told to get off their devices while the adults in their life seem just as obsessed. It can be tempting to try to manage their use, but you’re better off modeling healthy habits (age dependent, of course). Studies have shown that parental use of digital technology, rather than their attitudes toward it, determines how their children will engage with it.

Friend/follow your kids’ accounts. Your kids—especially teenagers—might resist you monitoring their social media, but it’s important that you’re (somewhat) informed of what’s happening in their online world. Explain your reasoning, listen to their hesitations, and let them set boundaries. Your virtual relationship with your child is an entirely new one, so be patient. Your best bet to build trust is to stay in the background: Don’t comment or like their posts unless they want you to, let the little things slide, and be ready to have offline conversations about the important things.

Social media can be a useful tool for development and distraction, but it can be a weapon of mental and athletic destruction in similar ways. The line between is often blurred.

“It’s 10 PM, do you know where your children are?”

https://mhanational.org/back-to-school/social-media-and-youth-mental-health

Youth and Social Media: Mental Health Effects and Healthy Use (healthline.com)

www.athleticshealthspace.com

Kevin Gorey is a Senior Director at the U.S. Council for Athletes’ Health (USCAH). Kevin brings extensive experience from both commercial health care and sports medicine to the USCAH team. His three-decades long professional experience has produced high-level results for the organizations he has had the privilege to work with.



The U.S. Council for Athletes' Health (USCAH) was founded upon the need for trusted, independent athletic health care partners with the experience and expertise to advise and consult with organizations regarding their healthcare delivery system. This is why USCAH is committed to providing independent and unbiased medical expertise to organizations and individuals dedicated to the optimal health and safety for the athletes they serve. You can find out more about USCAH at www.uscah.com or by reaching out to [email protected]


 Importance of Sleep in Athlete Development
(8/24/2022)
 
   

Importance of Sleep in Athlete Development


One of the best ways to help your child prepare for tomorrow begins tonight – and it’s free.


As summer break winds down across the country, now is the time to get your children back into their school year sleep routines. The all-to-common “late nights and late mornings” are at an end. Getting the proper amount of sleep is essential for growth, allowing your child’s body to reco
ver and repair from the day's activities. The functions of sleep are particularly important for young, developing athletes, who are practicing daily – a good night's rest can make all the difference in their success both athletically and academically.


How does sleep helps optimize sports performance?

Many people understand how sleep affects the developing brain. But for a high-performing young athlete, getting enough sleep is critical for their developing body. The first four hours of sleep are dominated by physical recovery, where more than 50% of your daily growth hormone is released, allowing the body to repair, recover, and optimize training adaptations such as increased muscle growth, strength, and power. The last four hours of sleep are dominated by the mental recovery phase, which is important in the development of short and long-term memory, processing, and cognitive function. This phase keeps the mind sharp. When striving to reach peak performance, sleep is a critical component – just as critical as hydration, conditioning, nutrition and mental prepa
ration.


Can getting enough sleep help reduce the risk of injury in young athletes?

Yes! Making sure young athletes get enough sleep each day reduces their risk of injury from both a mental clarity and physical recovery perspective. For example, adequate sleep improves reaction time and accuracy, and reduces mental errors. Restful sleep also allows the body to recover fully, repair and regenerate cells after workouts, all of which reduces the risk of injury.
How can getting enough sleep benefit a young athlete's development?

In addition to the mental benefits of adequate sleep, athletes getting enough sleep will also see better physical results from training. Lack of sleep, on the other hand, causes fatigue, leading to impairments in cognitive and motor performance, thus slowing reaction time. Sleep loss impairs judgment, motivation, focus, memory and learning. Without sleep, the brain struggles to consolidate memory and absorb new knowledge.




With all the resources spent on training, equipment and physical recovery, it’s interesting to note one of the best ways to help your child prepare for tomorrow begins tonight – and it’s free.

https://www.childrens.com/health-wellness/can-sleep-enhance-athletic-performance

https://thesleepdoctor.com/children/sleep-and-athletic-performance/



Kevin Gorey is a Senior Director at the U.S. Council for Athletes’ Health (USCAH). Kevin brings extensive experience from both commercial health care and sports medicine to the USCAH team. His three-decades long professional experience has produced high-level results for the organizations he has had the privilege to work with.

USCAH was founded upon the need for trusted, independent athletic health care partners with the experience and expertise to advise and consult with organizations regarding their healthcare delivery system. This is why USCAH is committed to providing independent and unbiased medical expertise to organizations and individuals dedicated to the optimal health and safety for the athletes they serve. If your team or organization would like to learn more about sleep and other health & safety issues, please reach out to [email protected]  or visit www.uscah.com.




The U.S. Council for Athletes' Health (USCAH) was founded upon the need for trusted, independent athletic health care partners with the experience and expertise to advise and consult with organizations regarding their healthcare delivery system. This is why USCAH is committed to providing independent and unbiased medical expertise to organizations and individuals dedicated to the optimal health and safety for the athletes they serve. You can find out more about USCAH at www.uscah.com or by reaching out to [email protected]


 Why Small Ball Still Has Value, Especially at the Amateur Level
(8/23/2022)
 
   

Why “Small Ball” Still Has Value, Especially at the Amateur Level


By Jim Koerner


Have you noticed how baseball has transformed over the past decade at the Major League level? According to Baseball Reference, home runs per season have increased from 4,552 in 2011 to almost 6,000 (5,936) in 2021. With this increase, strike outs have also surged from 34,489 to over 42,000, with a decrease in batting average, stolen bases and sacrifice bunts. Batted balls in play during each game have decreased and swing and miss rates are on the rise. Training academies are also preaching the importance of maximum exit velocities and increased attack angles. I’m not here to argue the merits of the homerun, and who wouldn’t want to hit the ball farther and harder? I am also a big advocate for the extra-base hit and a big inning. But at what cost?

It’s one thing to see these trends at the highest level of baseball, where the pitching and defense are unmatched, but it’s completely different at the amateur level. The goal is to score as many runs as needed during a game, and there is more than one way this can be accomplished. The versatility of our hitters plays an important role in this concept and needs to be addressed in our player development models. To further emphasize my point, let’s look at these numbers:

In the early 2000’s batting average and stolen bases per season were consistently higher than they are now. With that, strikeout rates were lower as well as homeruns per game. One might think runs per game would suffer with the decrease in home runs, but in fact, the opposite occurred. In the early 2000’s runs per game were higher than they are now (as high as 5.14 in 2004, compared to 4.53 in 2022). There are multiple reasons for this including the aforementioned change in pitching, but it helps prove there is more than one way to a score run.

Growing up, my father taught me how to use the proper tools for different jobs. You wouldn’t use a wrench to hammer a nail. The same framework can be applied on the baseball field. Think of each game as a different type of job with different tools needed. During a season, you will experience slugfests and pitcher’s duals with multiple variations in between. Players that possess the skill sets to succeed in multiple run producing ways are the players that can win any type of game. One dimensional players, and one dimensional teams, are easier to pitch to and easier to defend. Let’s fill each player’s toolbox by teaching them the necessary skills to play tough against all opponents.

Defining “Small Ball”

“Small Ball”, otherwise known as the Short Game, or "manufacturing runs," is defined as an offensive strategy in which the batting team emphasizes run production by advancing runners into scoring position in a deliberate, methodical way without requiring extra base hits, or sometimes, any base hits at all. I would argue that Small Ball doesn’t necessarily need to be methodical at all, but it can be rather aggressive and entertaining. Let’s break “Small Ball” into three categories. Those categories are the bunt game, base running and situational hitting. The bunt game includes all types of bunt plays, including the sacrifice, drag, push, suicide and safety squeeze. Base running will include, but is not limited to, stealing bases, dirtball reads, advancing two bases at a time, or taking any extra base (i.e. an outfielder bobbles the ball or over throwing to cut offs or throwing to the wrong base). Situational hitting would be a hit and run, run and hit, hitting behind runners, scoring the runner from third base with less than two outs and other bat control techniques. I’ll even include two strike adjustments as a form of small ball, since strikeout rates have climbed dramatically over the years.


1. Bunt Game

Contrary to some belief, bunting is not easy, and the higher the level of baseball the more difficult it becomes. All forms of bunting require skill that needs to be perfected, like any other aspect of the game. While controversial in nature due to advanced stats on run probabilities, there are still multiple situations where a bunt is effective.
Defense, in general and at the amateur level, can be suspect. The increased chaos a bunt causes puts more pressure on the infield to make plays. In addition to the lack of pitcher fielding practice at some levels, drag, push and sac bunts can all have a time and place for success. Knowing what side of the field the bunt needs to be directed can increase the odds of it being successful. Typically with a runner on first, the batter would want to put a sacrifice bunt down the first base side. With runners on second, or first and second, the batter wants the third baseman to field the ball. When bunting for a hit with either a drag or push, it’s important to know if a left or right handed pitcher is on the mound. Typically a left handed pitcher falls off the mound towards third base, which makes a push bunt (a bunt between first and second base and past the pitcher) the more appropriate call. With a right-handed pitcher that falls off the mound toward first base, a drag bunt down the third base line is the proper play.

The right time to use these tactics depends on multiple variables. Factors such as the speed of the batter, where you are in the lineup, the score of the game, and who is on the mound all play a role for both you, and your opponent. Two of my favorite bunt plays, which are extremely difficult to defend at any level, are the suicide and safety squeeze plays. When executed properly, they should both lead to guaranteed runs for your offense. If you are facing a dominant pitcher or your batter has been struggling at the plate, and your team needs an insurance run late in the game, this can be the perfect play.

I also want to make note of the ancillary benefits the threat of a bunt can cause. With the increased popularity of the shift, holes in the infield are harder to find for a hitter. If your batter can put a bunt down, the defense needs to respect this as a viable option. The corner infielders can no longer play at greater depths. The more the infield must move-in, the greater the space is for the hitter to find a hole. On the opposite side, if the infield doesn’t respect the bunt option and continues to play back, this opens up room for a drag or push to be more successful.

2. Base Running

For those old enough to remember Game 4 of the ALCS between the Yankees and Red Sox, you will remember one of the most important stolen bases in baseball history. Down one in the bottom of the ninth, with no one out, Dave Roberts steals second for the Red Sox. This stolen base ultimately leads to Roberts scoring to tie the game and an eventual Red Sox victory. Right place, right time, and the right person. The Red Sox were playing to win. They were facing the best closer in the history of the game, and they knew hits would be hard to come by. By stealing second base, they gave their offense three opportunities to get the base hit needed to tie the game. They could have sat back and waited for a double, but with Rivera on the mound and with his propensity for strikeouts and ground balls, it may have never come. Analytics say: if a player or team can steal bases at an 80% or better success rate, you are helping your offense increase their run probability. Your team needs to be prepared to capitalize in these high pressure moments. They should also be prepared to take advantage of amateur pitchers that don’t hold runners well or are slow to the plate.

I’ve always emphasized that immediately after a batter hits the ball his mindset needs to change from being a hitter to “what do I need to do to score.” If a base runner is solely relying on the next batter to drive him in, multiple opportunities to be aggressive on the bases may be missed. Aggressive base running goes well beyond simply stealing a base. The most important base running skill a player can possess is the ability to advance two bases at a time. This means going home to second, first to third and second to home. In order to do this effectively, the runner needs to be proactive in his approach. Hard turns around first base on singles can lead to doubles. Hard turns around first base with runners in scoring position can also lead to extra bases in the case of an overthrow by the outfield or throwing to the wrong base. The ability to go first to third or second to home on base hits will depend on knowing the positioning of the outfield defense before the pitch, gaining productive secondary leads, getting good reads off the bat, and taking the proper angles when rounding the bases. This all takes time to perfect and can be done most effectively during your batting practice routines.

A good base running team puts pressure on a defense to make plays and move fast, which can lead their opponent to make mistakes and errors. A player that has the feel to advance two bases at a time minimizes the need for an extra-base hit to score a run. Players that are a stolen base threat can divert a pitcher’s focus from the batter. This type of distraction can lead to more pitches to hit or increased command issues for pitchers. Teams that are proficient and proactive on the bases and ready to capitalize on all mistakes, are much tougher to play against and defend.

3. Situational Hitting


To have a good situational hitting team means your team is made of unselfish players. Many times, situational hitting means you’re giving yourself up for a productive out. If your lineup is filled with players that are willing to do anything for the overall good of the team, you should win a lot of games.

While we can cover many examples of situational hitting, including the hit and run or run and hit, the most important aspect to me is the ability to score the runner from third base with less than two outs. Most coaches would agree that they would trade an out for a run every time. This is a concept that needs to be emphasized with your team. With a runner on third and less than two outs you will typically see three different types of defense. Those defenses being the infield is all playing up, the infield is all playing back, or the corner infielders are up, and the middle infield is back. In two of those situations, infield back and middle back, all the batter needs to do is hit a ground ball to either the shortstop or second baseman to score the run. With the infield up, the batter is looking to hit a fly ball or line drive in the middle of the field. While neither the ground ball nor fly ball help the player’s batting average, they do become very productive outs by scoring the run. Getting your batters to make these unselfish swing adjustments makes your team tougher to pitch to and defend.

While situational hitting sometimes requires the hitter to cut down the swing and adjust, so does hitting with two strikes. While technically two strike adjustments don’t fall under “Small Ball,” everyone would agree that the more balls a team can put into play, the greater likelihood of having more base runners. Hitters that are tough to strike out increases the pressure on the pitcher, and often drives up pitch counts. These are benefits that can lead to more run scoring opportunities as the game progresses.

When extra-base hits and homeruns are hard to come by, your team still needs to find a way to generate offense. Having your players prepared to score runs in multiple ways only increases your likelihood to win any type of ball game. As an opposing coach, it is never comforting to know the team you’re playing can affect the game on multiple levels. Don’t give up on “Small Ball” strategy when planning practices and developing your players. At some point you will need it.




Jim Koerner is currently the Director of Player Development at USA Baseball. Koerner has 21 years of college coaching experience, including 18 years at the D1 level. He spent 13 years as a college head coach, with ten as an NCAA D1 head coach. Koerner has coached over 30 MLB draft or professional Free Agent Signees, 11 All-Americans, 4 Conference Players of the Year, 4 Conference Rookies of the Year, 2 Conference Pitchers of the Year, and over 60 All-Conference selections. Additionally, Koerner is a 2x Conference Coach of the Year and 2021 Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Southern Division Champion..

 


 How to Be Heat-Healthy This Summer
(7/13/2022)
 
   

How to Be Heat-Healthy This Summer


Kevin Gorey, MS
Senior Director, US Council for Athletes’ Health (USCAH)


We’ve all heard the term “Dog Days of Summer”, an idiom referring to the hottest days of the year. As the Dog Days loom, did you know young athletes are often the most susceptible to heat stress because they either don’t recognize the symptoms or feel pressured to continue practicing or playing? As a result, it is critical for parents and coaches to learn the signs and symptoms of heat illness to be proactive in prevention and having an action plan in the event an athlete develops heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

Heat illnesses threaten the overall safety and well-being of your child. They range in severity from minor to life threatening, which is why it is important to know the different stages of heat illness so that interventions can be made.

Heat cramps, heat syncope (fainting), heat exhaustion and heat stroke are all heat-related illnesses that happen when the body cannot properly cool itself in the heat. The body’s temperature rises faster than it can cool itself down. Exercising or playing in a hot or humid environment can increase the risk of dehydration, which can lead to heat exhaustion and heatstroke.

Although these conditions are all caused by heat and a person’s inability to efficiently dissipate it, they often times cause different combinations of symptoms:



How can you help prevent heat-related illness?

On hot and/or humid days, try to do outdoor activities when it’s coolest, like in the morning or evening hours. You can also help protect your child from the sun by making sure they wear sunscreen, even when it’s overcast. Sunburn affects the body’s ability to cool down, which can cause dehydration.

Fluid needs vary based on activity, intensity, environmental conditions, body size of the athlete and training status.

In addition to encouraging athletes to drink during activity, helping adolescent athletes develop their own hydration schedule is also useful. Scheduling fluid intake will help athletes get in the habit of drinking at regular times throughout the day. The following is an example of a basic fluid hydration schedule. Use this as a guide to help athletes understand the purpose, but have them tailor the times to their school and training schedule changes:



This list is not exhaustive and does not serve as formal education. Thorough education for coaches, athletes, support staff and medical staff around heat illness should occur annually and include:

• understanding when it is safe to conduct a workout
• how to recognize signs of heat illness and initial treatment
• the importance of on-site medical supplies specific to the weather
• venue specific emergency action plans

Organizations should be able to show proper education has occurred for these stakeholders on a yearly basis.

Remember, it’s COOL to be able to prevent and treat heat illness!


https://www.childrenscolorado.org/conditions-and-advice/parenting/parenting-articles/difference-between-heat-exhaustion-heatstroke/

https://truesport.org/hydration/heat-illness-youth-sports/

https://www.childrens.com/health-wellness/the-importance-of-hydration-for-young-athletes

https://www.nata.org/sites/default/files/healthy-hydration-for-young-athletes.pdf


Kevin Gorey is a Senior Director at the U.S. Council for Athletes’ Health (USCAH). Kevin brings extensive experience from both commercial health care and sports medicine to the USCAH team. His three-decades long professional experience has produced high-level results for the organizations he has had the privilege to work with.

USCAH was founded upon the need for trusted, independent athletic health care partners with the experience and expertise to advise and consult with organizations regarding their healthcare delivery system. This is why USCAH is committed to providing independent and unbiased medical expertise to organizations and individuals dedicated to the optimal health and safety for the athletes they serve. If your team or organization would like to learn more about preventing/treating heat illnesses or emergency action plans, please reach out to [email protected] or visit www.uscah.com.




The U.S. Council for Athletes' Health (USCAH) was founded upon the need for trusted, independent athletic health care partners with the experience and expertise to advise and consult with organizations regarding their healthcare delivery system. This is why USCAH is committed to providing independent and unbiased medical expertise to organizations and individuals dedicated to the optimal health and safety for the athletes they serve. You can find out more about USCAH at www.uscah.com or by reaching out to [email protected]


 Less is More: The Feedback Guidance Hypothesis
(6/29/2022)
 
   

Less is More: The Feedback Guidance Hypothesis


Mental Skills
By Andy Bass


Scenario: A coach is in the cage with a player and throwing them batting practice from behind an L screen.

Swing 1: Coach- “Your hands were too low at launch position.”
Swing 2: Coach- “Ok better, but you didn’t stay on your backside long enough.”
Swing 3: Coach- “Make sure you keep your head steady as long as possible.”
Swing 4: Coach- “Try and keep both hands on the bat when you follow through.”
Swing 5: Coach- “Choke up just a bit more.”
Swing 6: Coach- “Narrow your stance to straighten up.”

The intention of this coach, like nearly all coaches, is to help the player. While this example may be somewhat extreme—we have all experienced something akin to this situation either as a player or as a coach… over coaching and using verbal instructions too often. And while we can certainly see how, on the surface, this form of coaching can be unattractive to athletes (the athlete wants time to figure it out on their own, the various forms of verbal feedback are taking their focus too many directions, and rarely do athletes want to be lectured at/spoken too constantly throughout practice). However, the more pressing concern is that when we provide too much feedback, we can hinder learning and performance.

The problem with providing too much feedback is because the athlete is not tasked with ‘solving’ the issue on their own. Feedback has ‘guiding’ properties. This makes sense—we provide feedback because we want to guide athletes toward a movement solution. However, in motor learning there is a concept that builds off the guiding properties of feedback that is, appropriately, called "The Guidance Hypothesis."

The Guidance Hypothesis suggests that, because feedback from a coach serves to direct athletes to a solution, athletes can become dependent on the feedback to make corrections on their own (Winstein & Lewthwaite, 1994).  For example, if a player is constantly corrected by a coach in practice, and not allowed to struggle and work to find the solution on their own, they will become dependent of the feedback to make corrections. And while the athlete is practicing, this is not a problem—the coach is there to jump in and help. But… the coach is not in the batter’s box in the game. The coach is not on the mound. The coach is not in the infield or outfield. And now the athlete does not possess the skill to be able to adjust in the moment, make decisions—and their performance can greatly suffer because of it.

One way to think of how an abundance of feedback can be detrimental to the athlete in game is to liken it to the ‘bumper lanes’ we used when we were younger and learning to bowl. When the bumper lanes are up, it is impossible to throw a gutter ball. Verbal feedback from a coach can be like those bumper lanes. Constant correction and information from a coach acts like a crutch for the athlete as they never are forced to fail/explore movement on their own. Now what would happen if the bumper lanes were suddenly taken away? How well would that bowler do if they had always practiced with the lanes up? Constant feedback from a coach in practice is like having the bumper lanes up. And in the game the bumper lanes are taken away because the coach cannot instruct in the moment—and the athlete will suffer because of that.

What can we do about this? For one… the first step to solving any problem is knowing that there is one. We can bring a clicker to the field or facility with us, and every time we provide feedback (e.g. good job, stay back, keep it up, get lower, etc.) we can click it. And then at the end of the day we should notice how often we are interjecting ourselves, and the next day work to limit how much we speak. There are also methods of providing feedback we can work to help in mitigating how often we speak:

1) Summary feedback- Only provide feedback after the drill is over, and provide a general form of feedback rather than specific to each rep… a summary

2) Bandwidth feedback- Only provide feedback if the athlete falls out of a certain bandwidth. If we are turning double plays we only provide feedback if the infielders turn the double play slower than five seconds. If we are working with a pitcher only providing feedback if their velocity dips below a certain speed.

3) Self-controlled feedback- Only provide feedback when the athlete requests it. Allow them to self-control when they want instruction from us as the coach.

It is not wrong to provide feedback. Coaches have knowledge to impart to athletes, and there are certainly times and places where verbal feedback is necessary. However, we should work to limit how much we are talking during practice. We should strive for the drill itself to provide the information to the athlete… and not necessarily our words. One hypothetical to ask ourselves as we are designing practice should be “How could I teach this skill if the player and I did not speak the same language?”



Andy Bass is currently a Mental Performance Coordinator for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Bass played college baseball at Davidson College and was drafted in the 18th round of the 2011 MLB draft by the Tampa Bay Rays. He received his PhD in Sport Psychology and Motor Behavior from the University of Tennessee.